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Fanfiction: Changing the way Readers Read

student writing answers in homework task

The following is an undergrad research paper written in 2015 that was presented at the MCLA Undergraduate Student Research Conference (Spring of 2016) and the COPLAC Research Conference (Fall of 2016). It has been edited to fit a digital format.

Introduction

I sit at my computer typing away. My word count is already at 2,000, but I am not even halfway to the climax. An avid teen reader and writer spending her Saturday writing Supernatural fanfiction is less than bizarre to me, in fact, it is quite normal in the social spaces I occupy… on the internet.

Fanfiction has long been stigmatized as something only nerds with no social life participate in. It has been called at best self-indulgent and at worst Copywrite infringement. Existing in underground communities, fanfiction has existed as nothing more than a quirky space until recently. Fanfiction has existed for longer than anyone can remember, but it has started to gain recognition due to the increasing number of fan-spaces on the internet such as Tumblr (2007), LiveJournal (1999), Fanfiction.net (1998), and many others. Some scholars such as: Sophie Jackson, Henry Jackson, Grace O’Connell, Karen Raugust, and Becca Schaffner, have begun to contemplate what this newly popular form of writing is and can it be for students, teachers, fans, aspiring writers, and the original authors and publishing companies.

In Becca Schaffner’s article “In Defense of Fanfiction” published in The Horn Book Magazine she talks about her experience being part of the fanfiction community and dealing with what the outside world has to say about her hobby. Her experience has been tied to both sides of outsiders who say “Fanfiction is stories ripped off from other people’s work!” and “Fanfiction is a great way to get kids to read and learn!” (613). Her argument, however, is that “It should stay exactly as it is” because in her opinion Fanfiction serves the purpose it was created to do (614). She defines Fanfiction as “simply the practice of writing fiction based on other people’s work” (614). What she claims gives it value is the “community” it creates of “readers unconstrained by time, distance, age or talent” (614). She is highly encouraging of the “fandoms” as long as they stay as nothing more than underground communities (614).

Grace O’Connell holds a similar, yet slightly more flexible view in her short article “What’s yours is mine: Fan Fiction Imagines Whole New Worlds Starring Our Favorite Characters” published in This Magazine. O’Connell holds the view that fanfiction is fine as a hobby as long as you do not take it too far. She touches on her own definition of fanfiction and that it “involves devoted fans of a book taking the characters they know and love and imagining them new storylines. These storylines may be prequel, sequel, concurrent, or alternate timelines to the original published stories” (42). She talked a lot about J. K. Rowling and her reaction to the fanfiction that sprung from her books. She describes Rowling as “arguably the most fan fiction-ed author in the world” and talks about how the writer herself has “publically supported” the production of this kind of fiction (42). She also touches on the lawsuit that Rowling took out “against a publisher” who had plans “to publish a book form of The Harry Potter Lexicon” which is a “website” that collects information about the books (42). O’Connell wraps up by making a distinction in her argument: “There’s a difference between using someone else’s characters because you can’t be arsed to create your own (or because you simply want to cash in on their success) and a fan-boy or –girl’s overwhelming devotion to a franchise motivating them to imagine new storylines for the character’s to adore” (42). She is careful to make the distinction in “respect for the original creator” (42).

Henry Jenkins has an interesting point of view in his chapter “Why Heather Can Write” in the book Converging Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. He formulates his argument around our internet generation and how we interact with new forms of technology. Jenkins also uses Harry Potter as a strong example. His information comes from a girl named Heather who started a website called The Daily Prophet which is “a web-based ‘school newspaper’ for the fictional Hogwarts” (178). He describes her experience in setting up the website and what it has done for the kids that are involved in it saying how it “enabled kids to immerse themselves into the imaginary world of Hogwarts and to feel a very real sense of connection to an actual community of children around the world who were working together to produce The Daily Prophet” (180).

He talks about the community that Heather creates with her website and how “people of many different ethnic, racial, and national backgrounds” can come together and bond over a book series and a love of writing (180). He mentions how they get a lot of good value in the community that she has created such as how kids “use the new school community to work through their feelings about some traumatic event” or how they feel separated from their peers (182). He also mentions how in the Harry Potter books there’s a “value placed on education” and that “almost all the participants of The Daily Prophet imagine themselves as gifted students” (183).

The benefit to fans is an idea that also comes up in “Embracing the Fans: Publishers of licensed entertainment titles look for ways to integrate fan fiction and other user-generated content” an article by Karen Raugust published in Publishers Weekly where she describes how the industry is trying to get fans engaged in their products using things like fanfiction. In the article, she talks about different programs used to get readers involved. One of them being “the Dark Crystal Author Quest contest” that produced five eBooks “as well as a full-length novel by J.M. Lee” (22). She talks about other successful attempts to integrate Fan Fiction into mainstream media suck as Kindle Worlds and “Ridley Pearson’s Kingdom Keepers series, which takes place in Disney theme parks” (22). The program that accompanies the series, called Kingdom Keepers Insider, was inspired by the Kingdom Keepers Alliance. It is an “online community platform where fans respond to writing challenges for a chance to get published within the series” (22).

Methods

I interviewed two people from my specific fanfiction community online. They both read and write fanfiction regularly and one of them, CP Coulter (her pen name), wrote a fanfiction called Dalton that has taken off with its own fan base and become separate from the show, Glee, which it was based on. Though still not published in the traditional way, many people view her work, posted on FanFiction.net, to have its own “fandom” and have begun to write their own fanfiction, make their own fan art, and make other fan-created content based solely on Dalton that has nothing to do with Glee.

The other person, That Lady is a writer and reader of fanfiction in my community online. She volunteered to let me interview her and I will be using her Plurk username.

We communicated through email and on a website we used called Plurk, which is a Korean social networking site. I told them about my project and gave them a setlist of interview questions that they filled out (See Appendix for transcriptions).

From these interviews I coded for common trends and opinions in the answers.

Results and Discussion

Growing up Nerdy

A subject that came up almost immediately in most of my interviews with people part of this community was that they had felt estranged from their peers growing up. They felt they were often labeled as a nerd because of their love of reading and/or writing. That Lady, a fanfiction reader and writer tells me:

At school I would be taunted and teased, it was weird, my classmates would say. You’re a GIRL! Sadly, I crawled to the corner of the internet and found myself reading the accounts of many other girls with their ideas and personal adventures within the Star Wars universe. I felt so at home. It was not long after that I began to write myself.

That Lady

She found a home in the fanfiction community where she is appreciated and her ideas are shared and legitimated.

Many in the community have expressed this view and experience with the fandoms community as a whole. That in their schools and local group of kids they often felt like outcasts, and since Fanfiction moved to a more global, online audience they have been able to find and communicate with like-minded people all over the world.

For Example, CP Coulter, the author of the fanfiction, Dalton, lives in the Philippines and I can speak with her about her own work, my work, and common interests daily from here in Massachusetts.

Encouraging Kids to Engage

Another thing that That Lady mentioned in her interview was how much Fanfiction got her to engage as a child. She mentions being a kid and her mother and English teachers, trying to get her to read and write more. She says she remembers hating reading until she found and engaged in fanfiction communities on the internet which encouraged her to be more engaged in school. She told me, “I’ve met countless people who say they hate reading, but love a certain television show, and a work of fanfiction based on it. Little do they know, [it’s] reading!”

It is common with new technology and the use of eBooks and eBook apps to think what you are reading is not reading, it is just another thing you can do on your phone. Kids say ‘I don’t like to read’ and yet they read Facebook statuses, Tweets, and blog posts on a daily basis. Jenkins talks about his with his term “convergence culture.” Technology is changing and so are our definitions for some things.

A Strong Community

One thing almost anyone from a fanfiction community will tell you is that it is a tight-knit community. Because of the sense of finally belonging that comes with the ‘nerdy culture’ of fanfiction and similar online communities, it becomes a safe place for those who have been stigmatized in their offline world, or as we say it ‘In real life.”

That Lady told me, “The community we are a part of is very open and accepting, and if there is a fault (cultural appropriation, slurs not in context etc.) there will be someone there to point it out for the writer,” and you find this in many places throughout the community. There is a sense of unity at being part of this. We protect our own and that is important to us.

As Jackson stated in her article, the community is really a very positive one. It is an encouraging place for young writers to grow.

Censorship

However, there can be some harsh people in every community. Unfortunately, the fanfiction community as a whole has dealt with a lot of backlash from original creators with lawsuits, or just in general from people outside the community.

Fortunately, no one in my interview group had a personal experience with censorship. CP Coulter actually had a lot to say about how she was happy that we are not censored like regularly published fiction:

That’s what I love about fanfiction. We have no publishing houses or agents to tell us what we should and shouldn’t write. We write it because we can, we want to, and we will. And we put it out there and the world can read it. Inherently fanfiction should remain uninhibited. It expresses a kind of look into the mind of a person that is unfettered by the existing standards of norm when it comes to contemporary storytelling, and it definitely breaks into far bigger ground than anything the canon it derives from can actually present. I’ve never been censored by anyone because the fact is, writing is an act of purging oneself.

CP Coulter

It is important to the whole community that we are never censored. I have seen petitions throughout the years trying to shut down one censorship bill or another to keep our safe space safe. O’Connell’s article goes into a lot of the lawsuits that have been seen in our community as well.

With changes in how we publish and read and share content it is becoming a huge question about where we draw the line. What is someone aloud to post on their personal profiles and blogs and what is off limits? Where do we even begin to draw the line at free speech? These are important questions to ask that effect the authors in fanfiction circles. It used to be sharing it through journals and in notebooks passing it to maybe one person you knew who would enjoy it. Now it is permanently stamped on the internet for thousands of people to see and the question remains about the difference between a non-profit blog page and a notebook.

An Educational Tool

However, when used right fanfiction could be an excellent educational tool. The potential for reading comprehension and creative writing is endless. If you give a high schooler an assignment to write fanfiction about Romeo and Juliet they need to understand the story first and they might be a lot more engaged. CP Coulter thought this was a fantastic idea, “Everybody has seen a movie, tv show, read a book or a comic that they loved and as they talk to other people, they go, ‘But you know, I wish they did this or that instead’ or ‘I wish this happened instead’ and really, with fanfiction, that can be what happens, that can be what should happen next.”

This is how a lot of young writers get into fanfiction, they are simply unsatisfied by the ending of a story or they want to explore a character more and that all builds on writing skills later in life.

That Lady had a lot to say to me about her experience with how fanfiction had motivated her to learn and grow as a reader and a writer. She told me,

I must say with confidence that writing has stayed with me for years, and helped me [through] personal trauma, illness, and family issues. Now, I am able to connect sentences and words fairly fluently and write swiftly, something that helps with not only essays in my college career, but when I have procrastinated into the wee hours of the early morning, and my assignment is due in mere hours.

Tha Lady

Creative writing as a child translates back today in her college essays and in her school work. She has made herself a better writer and reader through the Star Trek words she explored as a kid.

Conclusion

Fanfiction, despite being censored in some places, is something we should be strongly encouraging in young kids. It can broaden creativity and make people better readers and writers overall in a way that is fun and engaging.

The strong communities and bonds made through these communities are supportive to everyone and encourage writing, reading, and overall learning through play. When you work on fanfiction and work with the characters and worlds and plot you can get practice for your own stories and it’s easier to get the writing basics when someone has done the more complex things for you, and for some young writers, this is a fantastic and motivating starting point.

It is still a stigma in some places to call fanfiction a nerdy thing to do or to claim it is copy write infringement, but we should maybe look at the benefits that writers like J.K. Rowling are seeing in the young creative talent that lives in these communities.

When I asked her how kids can benefit from this community, CP Coulter told me:

Fanfiction is there to tell us that there is a place in this world that we could make for ourselves. A piece of a story that we could make our own. We see a story that we love and adore and want to build it for ourselves in our hands and see what the canon can’t give us. It’s very liberating and very refreshing. It encourages young people to both read and write, letting them know that ‘hey, you can write this, this is okay. In fact, can I have more?’

CP Coulter

And that is what fanfiction’s place is in our new technological society. It is a legitimate form of creative expression that should be nurtured in those who chose to use it and the community to benefit themselves as writers and readers.

Appendix

Interview Transcripts

CP Coulter- Author of Dalton: A Glee Fanfiction

Brigid: What got you into Fan Fiction writing?

Coulter: I started when I was very young, back in elementary school, I think. Mainly it was because I’ve always loved writing stories and making up stories in my head. I used to share them vocally but my cousins tired of it real quick, so I moved on to writing them down instead.

Brigid: How would you describe your experience being a part of this community?

Coulter: If you mean fandoms, well, it’s a ride. A breakneck rollercoaster ride with the best and worst g-forces beating down on you. It sounds like an exaggeration, but honestly that’s what it feels like. There’s no place on earth I’ve seen where people are more passionate. I’d hazard that it’s more passionate than in sporting events, because you’ve got hundreds of thousands of people coordinating all this from different parts of the globe and it’s happening near 24/7. It’s really intense, it has ups and downs, but all the same it’s like living in a hurricane and you wouldn’t really want to leave.

Brigid: How has writing fanfiction improved your writing in other aspects of your life?

Coulter: Fanfiction helped me become more comfortable as a writer in general. Lots of people are afraid to write things or think they come off as stupid, but in fanfiction I really started to find my voice. I was able to better express myself, and these days I actually express myself far better in print than I do out loud.

It’s not just about fanfiction—like with any aspect of writing, you tend to have to do a lot of research and you make sure you know what you’re doing. Some people see fanfiction as a type of practice for original (whatever that means anymore) work, because much of it works the same way. You have to know the characters, the settings, the scenarios… You can’t just toss things onto the paper and call it a day. You really have to build and express it in such a way that it connects the video you see in your head to what the other person should see when they read the thing. So it really helps someone improve overall creative writing skills.

Brigid: How does the Filipino culture perceive Fanfiction writing?

Coulter: To be honest, fanfic writers in the Philippines feel like stealth ninjas. It isn’t a very huge well-known thing around here. It falls really into the hands of the geeks to do this sort of thing, and many still think it’s tedious to write. (as opposed to draw. Lots of excellent fan artists here who’ve moved on to work professionally in other countries) We don’t have that many famous mainstream writers, and even less for young adult, which is mostly the fanfiction demographic. So the ones who do tend to know each other, and when you find someone who does it, it’s like striking gold. Hello, you write fanfic, I do too! Very exciting, and it’s like you’re sharing something underground and special. Because it’s not really perceived as a very ‘cool’ thing to do, not even as something people generally ‘do’ (“so you write it just for free? You just make up stories? Just because? Why?”) in a country like ours, but we do it anyway because we love it.

Brigid: What languages do you speak/ read? Which one is the easiest for you to work in?

Coulter: I speak and read both Tagalog (one of our dialects) and English. But without a shadow of a doubt, I express myself and write better in English than I do in Tagalog. I tried writing in Tagalog once. My mother nearly died laughing. She said, “Honey, I know you’re an amazing writer. But writing in Filipino is not your forte.” I agree, I thought it was horrendous and I will never ever do it again. I am in awe of people who can write beautifully in our language. I’m going to stick to my English.

Brigid: Why did you choose to write Dalton in English? Have you ever written in another language? And if so which is easier to write in?

Coulter: Well, mainly like I said above because I speak and write in English better than I can express myself in Tagalog. And to be honest, writing Glee fanfic in Tagalog is hard. I think it’s a cultural thing, the culture in Manila, Philippines versus Lima, Ohio, USA is just too different and it wouldn’t be easy for me to express that in my language given that I’m so bad at it. By turning to English, I can better present the concepts, thoughts, and ideas that I have in my mind. Also, my pen name was in English, so I thought I’d have to really use English. The language is universal, and it’s more accessible to a whole lot of people since I was posting it online. I’ve never written in another language (that isn’t Filipino), I’m not fluent in any. It’s really easier to write in English.

Brigid: Why did you decide to use a pen name?

Coulter: The thing was when I started to write, few people knew about it. I went into other fields—cosplaying, modeling, acting, that kind of stuff. But I wanted to write again. Unfortunately I knew that if I used my real name, people could google it and see the stuff about my modeling and cosplaying and I got really worried because I was afraid that what I do as a person would make them cast a bias on the story. I didn’t want that, I wanted a clean slate so they could see the story for what it is and see it just like that. So I came up with a pen name (I wanted to use CC but then I keep remembering that mean lady from The Nanny, so I changed it to CP to make it gender-ambiguous as well, and then I picked Coulter from an online list of English surnames.). When I finally told people who I was behind the pen name, they were pretty surprised, and of course they told me that it wouldn’t have mattered if they knew, but all the same I’m glad they saw the work first before they saw me.

Brigid: Have you ever faced any censorship problems while writing or posting a fanfiction story? Please explain.

Coulter: That’s what I love about fanfiction. We have no publishing houses or agents to tell us what we should and shouldn’t write. We write it because we can, we want to, and we will. And we put it out there and the world can read it. Inherently fanfiction should remain uninhibited. It expresses a kind of look into the mind of a person that is unfettered by the existing standards of norm when it comes to contemporary storytelling, and it definitely breaks into far bigger ground than anything the canon it derives from can actually present. I’ve never been censored by anyone because the fact is, writing is an act of purging oneself. And what a person writes about a character saying or doing does not reflect on the author themselves. It reflects the sort of world that the author lives in. I’m very fortunate that the fanfiction world understands that and can see that.

Brigid: Do you think Fan Fiction is as important a type of literature as novels and classical literature? Please explain.

Coulter: Absolutely as important. Because it’s been around forever. A lot of old stories, the archetypes—even the ancient Greek epics and stories. A lot of people were writing derivations of a story they’d already read. “Fix it” fiction existed even ages back when people weren’t happy by how some stories ended. As I said in the question above, fanfiction is uninhibited and allows us to think of things that we normally wouldn’t consider for an existing canon and put it out there to share with other people. At the same time, it explores far more than existing canon does so it ultimately builds to the world as a whole. There are many pieces of fanfiction that have broken such new ground that people have preferred it over the actual canon. There are also fanfics that have broken into actual original books.

However, that doesn’t mean that fanfiction as itself isn’t enough. It’s more than enough. It encourages a huge demographic of people not just to read, but to broaden their horizons and opinions on the standards of the world and how it works. Where the original canon may be restricted, fanfiction is not. There’s far more representation, diversity, and understanding of human emotion here than there sometimes is in canon fiction. This is why a lot of people, particularly voracious young readers, turn away from published books and to fanfiction writers online instead. There’s a freedom and a bigger world here than can’t be found elsewhere.

Brigid: How do you think Fan Fiction benefits the community as a whole?

Coulter: Fanfiction is there to tell us that there is a place in this world that we could make for ourselves. A piece of a story that we could make our own. We see a story that we love and adore and want to build it for ourselves in our hands and see what the canon can’t give us. It’s very liberating and very refreshing. It encourages young people to both read and write, letting them know that “hey, you can write this, this is okay. In fact, can I have more?” There is literally nothing more encouraging to hear than to have people come up to you saying that they like this thing you’ve pulled out of your head and that they want more of it. Nothing bolsters an artist more. Nothing could be better than knowing you made a mark in this world even in the smallest way. And it all happens because of fanfiction.

Brigid: If Fan Fiction were made into a more common creative writing exercise in schools how do you think it would affect students? Would they like writing more? Would it boost reading comprehension?

Coulter: I would absolutely say they would write more. Everybody has seen a movie, tv show, read a book or a comic that they loved and as they talk to other people, they go, “But you know, I wish they did this or that instead” or “I wish this happened instead” and really, with fanfiction, that can be what happens, that can be what should happen next. And then you get to take the pen and continue the story on from there. They would be writing about it more and feel encouraged when more people agree with their point of view on it. And when people like what they see, they read more. The more you read, the more you understand contexts, improve your spelling, analytical skills, vocabulary, grammar, all the rest of it. Writing and reading are our oldest forms of sharing information, communication, and learning. So if fanfiction is what they need to boost that on, then I’m all for it.

That Lady-A Reader and Writer of Fanfiction

Brigid: What got you into Fan Fiction writing?

Lady: I think I got into fanfiction writing when I was very young. My mother is a teacher, and I hated to read or write. She cleverly tried everything in order to get me interested. Being an English major with a certificate in early learning education, she found that the best way to get me to enjoy reading and writing, which was first for her to write and illustrate little stories about my favorite things, then, slowly I begun to follow. When I was around 12 I began to write little adventures I thought that my dear friends Luke Skywalker, Han Solo, and Princess Leia would go on. That’s right, little ten year old me absolutely adored the Star Wars series. At school I would be taunted and teased, it was weird, my classmates would say. You’re a GIRL! Sadly, I crawled to the corner of the internet and found myself reading the accounts of many other girls with their ideas and personal adventures within the Star Wars universe. I felt so at home. It was not long after that I began to write myself.

Brigid: How would you describe your experience being a part of this community?

Lady: I would find my experience fairly positive. The community we are a part of is very open and accepting, and if there is a fault (cultural appropriation, slurs not in context etc.) there will be someone there to point it out for the writer. We all have learned from mistakes and victories in our writing and I think it is very important for everyone to have a community unique to their own interests, which is one of the great things about fanfiction writing! You can edit and select what and who you choose to surround yourself with, and what you wish to write on.

Brigid: How has writing fanfiction improved your writing in other aspects of your life?

Lady: Honestly, just writing from an early age has helped me in more ways than one. I was first inspired by my mother and my favorite things, then by other authors online, and I grew to write my own book! I was so proud once it finished, and completely devastated when my computer crashed and I lost everything on my hard drive. However, I must say with confidence that writing has stayed with me for years, and helped me though personal trauma, illness, and family issues. Now, I am able to connect sentences and words fairly fluently and write swiftly, something that helps with not only essays in my college career, but when I have procrastinated into the wee hours of the early morning, and my assignment is due in mere hours.

Brigid: How do people in your life perceive Fanfiction writing?

Lady: My mother and girlfriend are the main people in my life, besides my cat. And both of these women love that I have this corner of space where I can write, read, and be whatever I feel in that time.

Brigid: What languages do you speak/ read? Which one is the easiest for you to work in?

Lady: Currently I know extremely limited sign language and am fairly fluent in French, but I work better with English.

Brigid: Have you ever written in another language? And if so which is easier to write in?

Lady: I have written a lot in French, but English is much easier for me.

Brigid: Have you ever faced any censorship problems while writing or posting a fanfiction story? Please explain.

Lady: N/A (no).

Brigid: Do you think Fan Fiction is as important a type of literature as novels and classical literature? Please explain.

Lady: I think it is very important for learners of all ages to have access to an additional source of reading material that is an additional outlet in addition to other published work. I’ve met countless people who say they hate reading, but love a certain television show, and a work of fanfiction based on it. Little do they know, its reading! I think this is definitely an important type of literature that people rely on to help themselves expand reading horizons, or in my case, help their children enjoy reading.

Brigid: How do you think Fan Fiction benefits the community as a whole?

Lady: As a whole, I think there as many benefits. One of the most important would have to be the overwhelming support from readers and writers worldwide, thus creating a positive and encouraging environment for everyone. Encouraging people of all ages to read and write is so important! If this is one of the ways someone likes to express this, I think that is great. Additionally, encouragement comes in many forms, and everyone needs it in order to pursue what they are aiming for, even if it is not writing. Friendships can blossom, and supportive friends can help each other through the years.

Brigid: If Fan Fiction were made into a more common creative writing exercise in schools how do you think it would affect students? Would they like writing more? Would it boost reading comprehension?

Lady: I think this would be a great encouragement to students, especially in our technological age. People [are] more and more gravitating towards computers, [TVs], and tablets. This writing could easily help kids express themselves [through] characters, enhance thinking and creativity, as well as boost confidence and reading/writing comprehension. They may even begin to write in their own time.

Annotated Bibliography

Jackson, Sophie. “Comment: fanning flames.” The Bookseller 12 June 2015: 19. PowerSearch. Web. 20 Nov. 2015.

This article is a peer-reviewed article describing the author’s own experience with Fanfiction and the Fanfiction community. The data is taken from her own experience and opinions of the online community: “I began writing fan fiction In 2009 after becoming obsessed with the Twilight series. Fanfic is brilliant in so many ways, not least of all because it enabled me to scratch a creative itch while simultaneously spending more time with characters I’d fallen in love with.” She argues that this form of writing inspires her and that the community is helpful in fostering her creativity.

I’d like to use this in my research project because she makes some really good points about how it helps her writing logistically with others critiquing her work: “Publishing a fanfic online is kind of like an old-fashioned critique circle: you get Instant feedback. It’s certainly a crash course in reader expectations. Reviewers can be harsh. A minority can even be downright mean, but the majority are really helpful and encouraging” and supporting her.

Jenkins, Henry. “Why Heather Can Write.” Converging Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York and London: New York UP, n.d. 175-216. Print.

This is a print academic book where I want to use chapter 5: Why Heather Can Write. His research methodology is outlined in the introduction and focuses on convergence culture and how things are switching over to digital with increasing technology. His overall argument is that fanfiction is inevitable and that we should learn to accept in and maybe even appropriate it into our culture.

I really like how Jenkin’s discusses the censorship by Christion culture and the backlash against fanfiction. I can’t find a lot of that information so a good deal of it is going to come from this text.

“Kindle worlds expands.” EContent Apr. 2014: 7+. Academic OneFile. Web. 20 Nov. 2015.

This Article further explains Kindle Worlds mentioned in another source (Raugust).

O’Connell, Grace. “What’s yours is mine: fan fiction imagines whole new worlds starring our favourite characters.” This Magazine May-June 2015: 42. Academic OneFile. Web. 20 Nov. 2015.

This is a peer-reviewed article describing fanfiction and the community from a more outside standpoint. Her information comes from a lot of public knowledge. The argument is that Fanfiction is okay as long as you don’t take it too far.

I’d like to use this because they briefly summarize some of the problems with lawsuits against some writers and how some authors seem to be alright with fanfiction. It’s a good bias perspective on the issue.

Raugust, Karen. “Embracing the fans: publishers of licensed entertainment titles look for ways to integrate fan fiction and other user-generated content.” Publishers Weekly 18 May 2015: 22+. Academic OneFile. Web. 20 Nov. 2015.

This is a peer- reviewed journal article giving a more bias “news” account of the fanfiction world. Their information comes from current events and interviews with various people. There really is not argument as it is more of a news story, but it does lean towards the side of fanfiction being okay.

I’d like to use this because it outlines a lot of current events where fanfiction is relevant to give people a bit of background to the insight of how big this phenomenon actually is.

She mentions the Kingdom Keeper’s books which I actually own and could try and find some information in, (I know for a fact the second most recent one has an intro explaining the use of Fanfiction in the books.) I also like how they talk about more successful people in the community with published books (like Ridley Pearson) who work with companies like Disney to share their work.

They also talk about Amazon Kindle Worlds which I’ve seen, but would like to research more.

Schaffner, Becca. “In defense of fanfiction.” The Horn Book Magazine Nov.-Dec. 2009: 613+.Academic OneFile. Web. 20 Nov. 2015.

This is a peer-reviewed article describing the author’s experience being part of the fanfiction world and dealing with what the outside world has to say about her hobby. Her data comes from her own experience in observing the world around her. Her argument is that Fanfiction is great as it is and that we shouldn’t appropriate it or make it more popular. I want to use this as a slightly opposing viewpoint that I’m aware a lot of people in the community hold. I like how she talks about what makes fanfiction gratifying as what it is now and how she explains the ideas of how people from the outside react to it.

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